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Problem bei rein veganer Ernährung darstellt. Gemüse und Getreide nehmen Vitamin B12 aus 
dem Boden auf Aus den 1990er Jahren gibt es Untersuchungsergebnisse von A. Mozafar der 
ETH Zürich (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule), die zeigen, dass Pflanzen offenbar 
über ihre Wurzeln Vitamin B12 aus dem Boden aufnehmen können, aber nur, wenn sie mit 
Kuhdung gedüngt wurden, der sehr Vitamin-B12-reich ist (2). Sowohl Gerste als auch 
Spinat (nicht aber Sojabohnen) enthielten im Anschluss mehr Vitamin B12 als dieselben 
Pflanzen aus Kunstdüngung. Würde man 200 Gramm dieser Gerste essen, wäre man bereits mit 
1,8 Mikrogramm Vitamin B12 versorgt. Beim Spinat stellte man gar die doppelte Menge 
Vitamin B12 fest, allerdings in der Trockenmasse – und vom Spinatpulver nimmt man 
bekanntlich nicht sehr viel zu sich. In 10 Gramm waren zwar immerhin knapp 0,2 Mikrogramm 
Vitamin B12 enthalten, doch ist dieser Wert immer noch weit davon entfernt, den 
Tagesbedarf decken zu können. Im organisch gedüngten frischen Spinat betrug der Wert 0,14 
Mikrogramm pro 100 g. Man müsste davon also ebenfalls sehr viel essen, um wenigstens 
einen Teil des B12-Bedarfs mit Spinat decken zu können. Auch hat sich gezeigt, dass sich 
das B12 offenbar nicht in jeder Pflanze anreichert, da die Sojabohne kein B12 enthielt – 
ob mit oder ohne Kuhdung gewachsen. Man könnte also nicht sichergehen, dass jedes 
organisch gedüngte Gemüse und Getreide auch wirklich B12 enthält. ANZEIGE effective 
effective nature Vitamin-B12-Tropfen 19,90 EUR effective effective nature ImmuFit Daily 
15,90 EUR Und täglich 200 Gramm Gerste und 1 Kilogramm frischen Spinat zu essen, ist auch 
nicht gerade des Rätsels Lösung. Japanische Wissenschaftler schrieben dann aber im Jahr 
2014 auch noch, dass die meisten auf Dung basierenden organischen Düngemittel 
beträchtliche Mengen (um die 98 Prozent) an inaktivem Vitamin B12 enthielten, so dass 
vermutlich das B12 aus dem naturgedüngten Gemüse und Getreide nicht verwertet werden 
könne. Vielleicht aber wird im Organismus bereits ausreichend Vitamin B12 gebildet, so 
dass man das Vitamin gar nicht essen müsste? Kann der Mensch selbst Vitamin B12 bilden? 
Häufig wird berichtet, dass Vitamin B12 im Darm von den dort ansässigen Darmbakterien 
gebildet wird (natürlich nur, wenn man eine gesunde Darmflora habe). Diese Vitamin-B12-
Bildung findet jedoch grösstenteils im Dickdarm statt. Resorbiert wird das Vitamin B12 
aber schon vorher, nämlich über die Schleimhaut des Dünndarms (Ileum). Also kann das 
selbst produzierte B12 kaum aufgenommen werden – gesunde Darmflora hin oder her. Es wird 
stattdessen mit dem Stuhl ausgeschieden. Bei manchen Pflanzen fressenden Wildtieren ist 
das ebenfalls so, z. B. bei Kaninchen, aber auch bei manchen Affen. Daher nehmen diese 
Tiere immer wieder ihren eigenen Kot auf, was für die meisten Menschen vermutlich nicht 
in Frage kommen wird. Lediglich eine doch recht betagte Studie von 1980 meint, dass – 
zumindest bei Teilen der südindischen Bevölkerung – auch im Dünndarm Bakterienstämme 
siedeln, die verwertbares B12 bilden (Pseudomona und Klebsiella). Damit die Bakterien 
Vitamin B12 bilden können, muss der Organismus jedoch zusätzlich gut mit Kobalt versorgt 
sein, einem wichtigen Bestandteil des Vitamin B12. Kobalt ist ein Spurenelement, das in 
relevanten Mengen in Kakao, Sonnenblumenkernen, Nüssen und Rotbuschtee enthalten ist. 
Leider weiss der Einzelne aber nicht, wie es um seine Darmflora und deren B12- 
Bildefähigkeit bestellt ist. Niemand weiss

This is an excellent article as worth reading. History of Switzerland Jump to

navigationJump to search «Family tree of the Swiss Confederation». The 19th century

jewelry journal illustrates the emergence of the modern Swiss federal state founded in

1848. (Note that the coats of arms of Unterwalden above the forest and Unterwalden nid

the forest have to be confused .) The recent history of Switzerland as a federal state

begins with the adoption of the Federal Constitution of 1848 . The forerunners of modern

Switzerland were the old Confederation , which had been organized as a loose federation

since the end of the 13th century , the centralized Helvetic Republic that existed from

1798 to 1803 and the "Swiss Confederation" founded in 1803 and reorganized in 1815. The

Swiss cantons won in 1648 in the Peace of Westphalia , the sovereignty of the Holy Roman

Empire of the German Nation . This sovereignty was confirmed by the Congress of Vienna in

1815 and the borders of Switzerland that existed before the " French era " and are still

valid today, apart from minor deviations, recognized. Important basic lines in Swiss

history are the pronounced federalism and, since the Second Peace of Paris in 1815,

international neutrality , based on the decisions of the Congress of Vienna. Table of

Contents 1         precursor 2        Overview of the history of what is now Switzerland's territory

before 1291 3    Formation and growth of the Old Confederation 1291–1515 4th               Reformation and

Counter-Reformation 1519–1712 5         Ancien Régime 1712–1798 6th   The «French Era»: Helvetic

and Mediation 1798–1814 7th   Switzerland as a confederation of states 1814–1847 8th              

Sonderbund War 9         Foundation and consolidation of the new Swiss federal state 10               First

World War 11    Interwar period 12th      Second World War 13    Switzerland in the post-war period

and during the Cold War 14th    Switzerland in the 1990s 15th    21st century 15.1               Political

situation 15.2    Other events 16              Timeline of major events 17th   Anniversary celebrations and

national events 18th      Order of entry of the cantons into the Confederation 19th         

Documentation 20th      See also 21         literature 22nd  Web links 23      Individual evidence

Forerunner Flag of the Helvetic Republic 1798–1803 Federal coat of arms Modern

Switzerland can be traced back to three forerunners: The " Old Confederation ", a loose

structure of different countries and city-states ( confederation of states ), partly on

the territory of today's Switzerland. Traditionally, the founding year was the renewal of

an older alliance by the Drei Waldstätte Uri , Schwyz and Unterwalden in 1291 . The so-

called 13 "places" (cantons) fought for extensive autonomy from the Holy Roman Empire ,

most recently in the Swabian War in 1499. Through the Peace of Westphaliathe federal

estates, their subject territories and allies ("allies") became sovereign under

international law, i. H. independent of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. The

French invasion of Switzerland and the Helvetic Revolution in 1798 marked the end of what

had been divided internally since the Reformation . Under pressure from the French

Republic , i. H. Above all Napoleon Bonapartes, in 1798 the area of ​​the former Old

Confederation was largely amalgamated into the centrally structured " Helvetic Republic

". The previously independent states of the Confederation were degraded to administrative

units, partially divided or combined into larger units. After the withdrawal of the

French troops in 1802, the Helvetic Republic perished in the civil war between the

advocates of the unified state and the federalists. Due to the federal tradition of the

old Confederation and its roots in the population, the federalists clearly retained the

upper hand, the unitary state was never widely accepted. In 1803 the representatives of

the cantons came to an agreement under the mediation ( French: médiation ) of Napoleon

Bonaparte . The "Swiss Confederation" was re-established as a confederation of states

through the act of mediation as a confederal constitution. After the fall of Napoleon,

this union dissolved again in 1813. The 13 old cantons and the nine newly founded cantons

since 1798 then merged into a new confederation in the federal treaty of August 7, 1815.

From the Congress of ViennaIn 1814/15 the structure of the Swiss Confederation, its

territorial integrity and “perpetual neutrality” were recognized. In the 1830s, the

aristocratic families, which had regained their strength since 1815 and 1803, were

finally politically disempowered in the individual cantons, and the liberal-democratic

form of government took hold. After the Sonderbund War on September 12, 1848, the Swiss

Confederation was transformed into the federal state with the federal city of Bern, which

still exists today, through the adoption of a federal constitution . “Swiss

Confederation” or Confoederatio Helvetica continues to serve as the official name .

Overview of the history on the present territory of Switzerland before 1291 → Main

article : Prehistory and early history of Central Europe The area of ​​today's

Switzerland has been populated since the Paleolithic . Only after the last ice age was

the Swiss plateau more densely populated, especially the areas around the lakes (→  pile

dwellings ). With the beginning of the Iron Age , the Celtic settlement of the Central

Plateau began. Celtic finds near La Tène in the canton of Neuchâtel gave the entire

period of the younger Iron Age its name (→  Latène culture ). The Celts cultivated trade

relations up to the Greek cultural area . In this phase, too, the first signs ofFonts

emerged, which, however, were not yet alphabetical in nature. → Main article :

Switzerland in Roman times Switzerland in Roman times Before the conquest by the Romans,

according to the records of the Roman general and politician Julius Caesar in his

justification for the Gallic War (→  De bello Gallico ), various Celtic tribes and

peoples lived in what is now Switzerland : the Helvetians (Central Plateau), the

Lepontier ( Ticino), the Seduner (Valais, Lake Geneva) and the Raetier (Eastern

Switzerland). In the course of the expansion of the Roman Empire over the Alps, the area

of ​​today's Switzerland was subjugated until the 1st century AD in order to secure the

strategically important Alpine passes to Germania. Most of Switzerland was during

theImperial period assigned to the Roman province of Germania superior . Eastern

Switzerland, Valais and Graubünden belonged to the province of Raetia , parts of Ticino

finally to the province of Gallia Transpadana . The centers of Roman Switzerland were the

old Helvetic capital Aventicum ( Avenches ) and the Roman colonies Julia Equestris (

Nyon ), Augusta Raurica ( Augst ) and Forum Claudii Vallensium ( Martigny ). Until late

antiquity , the Celtic population of Switzerland adopted Roman customs, culture and

language, and finally that tooChristianity . During the reorganization of the Roman

provinces in the 3rd century by Emperor Diocletian , northern Switzerland was assigned to

the province of Maxima Sequanorum and a dense chain of fortified towns, forts and

watchtowers was created along the Rhine (→  Danube-Iller-Rhein-Limes ). After the Goths

invaded the Western Roman Empire in 401, all Roman troops were withdrawn from the areas

north of the Alps to protect Italy. The rule over western Switzerland passed to the

empire of the Burgundians , central and eastern Switzerland were taken over by the

Alamannicontrolled and populated, while the Alpine regions remained in the hands of Celto-

Roman local rulers. Some Roman structures shaped Switzerland beyond the end of Roman

rule: the road network, the Roman settlements and the old Roman spatial division, in

particular the ecclesiastical organization with the diocese borders. → Main article :

Switzerland in the Middle Ages Map of Alemannia and Burgundy around the year 1000 The

feudal rule of the Zähringer , Habsburg , Kyburger and Savoyer in Switzerland around 1200

The empire of the Ottonians and Salians in the 10th century Due to the increasing

immigration of West Germanic Alemanni ( Alemanni ) from the year 259, the Romansh

population of Eastern and Central Switzerland adopted the Alemannic language in the early

Middle Ages , while the Burgundian language did not prevail in Western Switzerland, but

instead kept Latin dialects. Later the Franco-Provencal language emerged from this .

Latin dialects, from which the Italian and Rhaeto-Romanic languages ​​developed , were

also able to survive in Graubünden and Ticino . After a short independence, the empires

of the Burgundians and the Alemanni became part of the 6th century ADIncorporated

Franconian Empire . Under Franconian rule, the entire area of ​​today's Switzerland was

Christianized through the work of missionaries and the founding of numerous monasteries,

such as St. Gallen , Reichenau , Moutier-Grandval and Romainmôtier . Feudalization also

took place in the early Middle Ages: peasants entered into an inheritance relationship

with clergy or noble landlords. With the division of the Frankish empire of Charlemagne

by his grandson in the Treaty of Verdun -speaking Switzerland came (843) is first to

Lotharingien , then to a new kingdom of Burgundy , while the Eastern part of the duchy of

Swabia toEastern Franconia , later the Holy Roman Empire (German Nation) , came. After

the acquisition of Burgundy by the Ottonian imperial dynasty (1033), the entire area of

today's Switzerland belonged to the Holy Roman Empire. For the Roman-German emperors,

the Alpine passes were of crucial importance for the control of Italy, especially for the

trains to Rome on the occasion of the imperial coronations. For this reason, the emperors

had owned extensive areas in the Alpine region since the early Middle Ages, which they

administered directly as imperial property and not as fiefdoms. In addition, various

noble families competed in the Alpine region, the Zähringer , Kyburger , Lenzburger ,

Habsburg and Savoyer . Large areas of Switzerland belonged to various ecclesiastical

institutions, for example monasteries, foundations or even directly to the bishops. Some

of these succeeded in the High Middle Agesthe rise to the prince status like the prince

abbots of St. Gallen or the prince-bishops of Basel , Chur , Sitten and Constance .

Growth of the Old Swiss Confederacy 1291-1515 → Main article : Origins and growth of the

Old Confederation The extinction of powerful aristocratic families as well as the

disputes between the emperor and the pope favored the independence of the more important

cities and valleys of Switzerland in the 13th century. In 1218 Zurich, Bern , Freiburg

and Schaffhausen became " imperial cities " after the Zähringers died out ; Uri (1231)

and Schwyz (1240) also received the privilege of imperial immediacy . This means that

these cities and regions were directly under the emperor or the king and were excluded

from the rulership of the local counts. With this, Emperor Friedrich II securedthe route

from the north over the Gotthard Pass to Italy, while he was at war with the Lombard

cities, and secured the loyalty of the cities in the fight with Pope Innocent IV. After

Frederick II was banned by the Pope and declared deposed in 1245, held because also Bern,

Basel and Zurich to the emperor. The end of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and the beginning of

the interregnum in the empire also marked the transition to the late Middle Ages for what

is now Switzerland . At the same time, around 1230, the Gotthard Pass became a trade

route with the construction of the Devil's Bridge . The Bündner passes were still more

important, however. The so-called Federal Letter of 1291 The Confederation and Habsburg

around 1315 The three forest sites Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden form the core of the Old

Confederation . In 1291, following the death of the Roman-German King Rudolf I of

Habsburg, they renewed an older alliance, which has been mythologically transfigured

since 1891 as the "foundation" of the Old Confederation (→  Federal Letter of 1291 , → 

Rütli Oath ). In 1309 King Heinrich VII confirmed the imperial immediacy of Uri and

Schwyz and now also included Unterwalden in it; the three forest sites were placed under

a royal governor. In recent research, the privilege of 1309 is seen as an important step

towards the formation of an alliance later, [1]the importance of the Federal Letter, on

the other hand, is viewed as overestimated. [2] The core alliance of the three forest

sites in what is now Central Switzerland was gradually expanded to include further

partners, especially imperial cities in the Swiss plateau between the Rhine and Aare . In

particular, the alliances with the imperial cities of Zurich from 1351 and Bern from

1353, after the Laupenkrieg in BernHad won in 1339, contributed significantly to the

consolidation of power politics and territorial expansion, as the cities had large

subject areas. It was only through the three cities that the Confederation achieved a

stable political significance, which was also tolerated by the European court centers in

Vienna, Paris and Milan.